Education

http://www.uwgb.edu/education/

Interdisciplinary Major or Minor
(Bachelor of Science)

Associate Professors – Scott Ashmann, James Coates, Jr., Timothy Kaufman (chair), Mark Kiehn, Steve Kimball, Pao Lor, Linda Tabers-Kwak
Assistant Professors – Maria Aurora Cortes de Fulton, Christin DePouw, Mary Gichobi
Senior Lecturers – Art Lacey

UW-Green Bay’s teacher education program is approved by the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction. The program is designed to prepare entry-level teachers with relevant content, professional knowledge and skills to effectively meet the future learning needs of a changing school population.

At UW-Green Bay, students seeking early childhood (Early Childhood — Ages 0-8) or elementary-level (Early Childhood through Middle Childhood – Ages 0-11 or Middle Childhood through Early Adolescence — Ages 6-12/13) licensure are required to complete a major in Education. Students completing the Ages 6-12/13 license are also required to complete an approved minor. Graduates seeking these licenses receive a bachelor’s degree in Education.

Students who desire secondary-level teaching licensure (Early Adolescence through Adolescence — Ages 10-21 or Early Childhood through Adolescence — All Ages) are required to complete a minor in Education to support a disciplinary major as required and approved by the Department of Public Instruction. Graduates seeking these licenses receive a bachelor’s degree in their disciplinary major(s).

The interdisciplinary, problem-focused studies offered at UW-Green Bay provide uncommonly strong preparation for teaching. Students focus on excellence in the teaching/learning process through methods and field experience courses that provide the background, knowledge and instructional tools needed to become effective teachers. These studies complement strong academic coursework in communication, the arts, humanities, social studies, science and mathematics.

UW-Green Bay offers teacher license programs at these age levels:

  • Early Childhood (Ages 0-8)
  • Early Childhood through Middle Childhood (Ages 0-11)
  • Middle Childhood through Early Adolescence (Ages 6-12/13)
  • Early Adolescence through Adolescence (Ages 10-21)
  • Early Childhood through Adolescence (All Ages)

UW-Green Bay’s teacher education program provides prospective teachers with an opportunity to work in a variety of educational settings throughout their program of study. These school-based experiences will include work with various ethnic, cultural and economic groups, and children with exceptional educational needs.

Who Should Seek an Education Major or Minor?

To declare a major or minor in Education, students must first be admitted to the Professional Program in Education. The process and requirements are listed below. Students must enjoy being around children and adolescents. However, a love of children does not guarantee a love of teaching! Teaching is a demanding but extremely rewarding profession. The best teachers are those who pursue a love of learning that does not end at graduation. Teaching is a calling, a commitment to educating, and not just a job.

Students interested in pursuing an Education major or minor must have the ability to communicate, inspire trust and confidence, and motivate students, as well as understand their educational and emotional needs. They also should be organized, dependable, patient, and creative.

Majors and Minors

For the student majoring in Education, a minor is required only when pursuing a Middle Childhood through Early Adolescence (Ages 6-12/13) license. Students thinking about teaching at the middle or high school level complete a minor in Education and major in the area they want to teach. Students must have a passion for their major program of study and a desire to actively engage others in the learning process.

Knowledge and Skills Gained in the Major and Minor

The requirements for both the Education major and minor include courses that address today’s concerns in education: changes in the schools and schooling, changes in the nature and nurture of students, and changes in society and the workplace. Early clinical experiences allow prospective teachers to observe and participate in actual educational settings. These experiences will often include working with students from various ethnic, cultural and economic groups, adult learners, and exceptional needs children.

Students will learn and understand the central concepts, tools, and structures of their discipline. Students will also understand how children learn and develop and how children differ in their learning abilities. Teaching techniques and strategies of instruction are taught not only to educate children on subject matter, but also in an effort to encourage critical thinking and problem-solving.

What Can You Do with a Major or Minor in Education?

Education is a professional program, which primarily educates students to become entry-level teachers. However, there are many other career opportunities in education. The following are some but certainly not all of the career opportunities in the field of education: day care administrator, education management specialist, educational sales representative, education and training administrator, elementary school teacher, kindergarten teacher, librarian, preschool administrator, secondary school teacher, and tutor.

Program Admission Process and Requirements

Admission to the program is a two-step process. The first step is to be admitted as a candidate. Step two is final admission to the program. Complete information about admission requirements and all application materials can be obtained from the Education Program Office.

Applications for candidacy must be completed and submitted near the beginning of each semester for admission starting the next semester. A committee of Education program faculty reviews applications and makes admission decisions based on the criteria described below. Meeting the minimum requirements does not guarantee admission as a program candidate.

The process and requirements for admission as a candidate in the Professional Program in Education are as follows:

  1. Apply and be accepted to the University of Wisconsin-Green Bay.
  2. Complete a minimum of twenty-eight (28) university credits with a cumulative grade point average of at least 2.75.
  3. Meet one of test requirements listed below.  Test scores cannot be more than five years old and an official score report must be submitted to the Education Program Office at the time of application.
    1. Receive passing scores on all three sections of the Pre-Professional Skills Test (PPST) or the Core Academic Skills for Educators (CORE) exam.
    2. A composite ACT score of 23 or higher with a minimum score of 20 in English, Math and Reading.
    3. A composite SAT score of 1070 or higher with a minimum scores of 450 in Math and Verbal sections.
  4. Completed EDUC 295 and EDUC 206.
  5. Complete and submit an Application for Candidacy with supporting documentation to the UW-Green Bay Professional Program in Education.

Only students who are candidates can apply for final admission to the program. A committee of Education program faculty members reviews applications and makes decisions on final admission based on the criteria described below. Meeting the minimum requirements does not guarantee final admission to the program.

The process and requirements for full admission to the program are as follows:

  1. Be admitted as a teacher education program candidate.
  2. Successfully complete all required courses in candidacy block including EDUC 290 with a grade of B or better.
  3. Complete and submit an Application for Admission to the Professional Education Program.
  4. Submit the K-12 Teacher Recommendation Form to the Education Program Office.
  5. Submit the UW-Green Bay Instructor Recommendation Form to the Education Office.

Teacher Licensing Requirements and Preparation

Students planning to pursue a teaching license should contact the Education Program Office, (920) 465-2137. Teacher licensing requirements are very specific and require ample credit hours. Also, Department of Public Instruction requirements change from time-to-time, making program requirements subject to change. Students must meet any new requirements before a license will be awarded. Students are responsible for being aware of current licensure requirements.

In addition to the requirements listed here, there are regulations about time limits, grade point averages, test scores and other program completion requirements. Credit hours necessary to fulfill the requirements for specific licenses vary, depending upon the major and/or minor selected, age level licensure sought, and other factors. The Education Office can provide specific requirements.

Individuals who already hold a bachelor’s degree and are interested in pursuing a teaching license should contact the Education Office regarding special requirements that apply to them.

Following are summaries of academic program components required for each of the  five teaching licenses offered at UW-Green Bay. A detailed listing of specific licensure requirements can be obtained from the Education Program Office.

Early Childhood (Ages 0-8) and Early Childhood through Middle Childhood (Ages 0-11)

  • UW-Green Bay general education requirements
  • Interdisciplinary major in Education
  • Professional education course sequence
  • Student teaching

Middle Childhood through Early Adolescence (Ages 6-12/13)

  • UW-Green Bay general education requirements
  • Interdisciplinary major in Education
  • Approved minor
  • Professional education course sequence
  • Student teaching

Early Adolescence through Adolescence (Ages 10-21)

  • UW-Green Bay general education requirements
  • Content area major
  • Interdisciplinary minor in Education
  • Professional education course sequence
  • Student teaching

Early Childhood through Adolescence (All Ages)

  • For licenses in art, English as a second language, music, foreign languages, theatre only
  • UW-Green Bay general education requirements
  • Selected content area major
  • Interdisciplinary minor in Education
  • Professional education course sequence
  • Student teaching

Students may study abroad or at other campuses in the United States through UW-Green Bay’s participation in international exchange programs and National Student Exchange. Travel courses are another option for obtaining academic credits and completing requirements. For more information, contact the Office of International Education at (920) 465-2190 or see http://www.uwgb.edu/international/.

Courses

EDUC 198. First Year Seminar. 3 Credits.

Reserved for New Incoming Freshman.

EDUC 203. Environmental Education in K-12 Schools. 2 Credits.

Philosophies, teaching/learning processes, and resources for environmental education. Focus on hands-on/minds-on activities and multidisciplinary environmental education theory and practice; examination of ways to apply learning to future teaching roles in and out of the classroom.
P: Adm to teacher educ and EDUC 361. REC: ENV SCI 102, or 302, or 305.

EDUC 206. Cultural Images in Materials for Children and Adolescents. 3 Credits.

The varied images of ethnic and racial groups and sex roles as developed in tradebooks, textbooks and other instructional materials for children and adolescents; detecting negative images and building positive images.

EDUC 250. Field Experience in Education. 2 Credits.

Direct field experience working with children in educational settings; biweekly campus classes and 30 hours direct observation, participation and interviews. Must be completed no later than first semester after admission to teacher certification.
P: so st, gpa 2.75 or higher, accepted as tchr educ prog candidate, and caregiver background check req; contact Educ Dept for application.

EDUC 280. Instructional Technologies: Evaluation, Production and Application. 1-3 Credits.

This course examines computer and audio-visual materials designed, developed, and promoted for classroom use. Students will examine and use resources, explore professional literature and evaluate processes and products for future students. This course will meet the Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction P.I. 3 & 4 mandates.
P: adm to teacher educ or candidate status.

EDUC 290. Introduction to Educational Inquiry. 5 Credits.

An intensive exploration of the complex process of inquiry and the major issues raised by the thoughtful observation in the field.
P: Departmental Approval required; caregiver background check and TB test required.

EDUC 295. Special Topics. 1-3 Credits.

EDUC 298. Independent Study. 1-4 Credits.

Independent study is offered on an individual basis at the student's request and consists of a program of learning activities planned in consultation with a faculty member. A student wishing to study or conduct research in an area not represented in available scheduled courses should develop a preliminary proposal and seek the sponsorship of a faculty member. The student's advisor can direct him or her to instructors with appropriate interests. A written report or equivalent is required for evaluation, and a short title describing the program must be sent early inthe semester to the registrar for entry on the student's transcript.
P: fr or so st with cum gpa > or = 2.50; or jr or sr st with cum gpa > or = 2.00.

EDUC 299. Travel Course. 1-4 Credits.

Travel courses are conducted to various parts of the world and are led by one or more faculty members. May be repeated to different locations.
P: cons of instr & prior trip arr & financial deposit.

EDUC 302. Teaching Social Studies in Elementary and Middle Schools. 3 Credits.

Addresses social studies standards, assessments, curriculum content, and instructional strategies including concepts, classroom environment, scope and sequence and other forces influencing the social studies program.
P: adm to teacher educ and EDUC 361.

EDUC 303. Teaching Art in the Elementary and Middle Schools. 3 Credits.

Philosophy and psychology of art education, characteristics and stages of creative development in children and children's art, selecting and motivating artistic experiences, developing lesson plans and units, organization of elementary art curriculum.
P: adm to teacher educ and EDUC 361.

EDUC 304. Teaching Music in the Elementary and Middle Schools. 3 Credits.

Identification of children's musical needs; materials and methods to assist classroom teachers in meeting these needs; includes practical experience with basic elements of music for the classroom teacher's competency and self-confidence.
P: adm to teacher educ and EDUC 361.

EDUC 306. Teaching Health, Physical Education in the Elementary, Middle Schools. 3 Credits.

Principles and methods of planning and conduct of health and physical education instruction for elementary and middle school classroom teachers.
P: adm to teacher educ and EDUC 361.

EDUC 307. Teaching Reading in the Elementary and Middle Schools. 3 Credits.

Teaching methods in developmental reading: nature of the reading process, reading readiness, vocabulary, comprehension and study-skills development. Techniques for diagnosis and instruction of diverse learners.
P: adm to teacher educ.

EDUC 309. Teaching Language Arts in the Elementary and Middle Schools. 3 Credits.

Develops a language arts model, rationale, basic processes and skills and assessment procedures for the language arts classroom.
P: adm to teacher educ.

EDUC 310. Teaching Communication Arts in the Middle and Secondary Schools. 3 Credits.

Theoretical and practical considerations in teaching communication arts. Development of a communication arts model, rationale, basic processes and skills, and assessment procedures for the communications arts classroom.
P: adm to teacher educ and EDUC 361.

EDUC 311. Teaching Foreign Languages. 3 Credits.

Principles and methods of teaching foreign languages to students of all ages; evaluation of texts and other materials; simulation of planning for one semester's teaching.
P: adm to teacher educ and EDUC 361.

EDUC 312. Teaching Social Studies in the Middle and Secondary Schools. 3 Credits.

Addresses social studies standards, assessments, curriculum content, and instructional strategies including concepts, classroom environment, scope and sequence and other forces influencing the social studies program.
P: adm to teacher educ and EDUC 361.

EDUC 313. Teaching Mathematics in Middle and Secondary Schools. 3 Credits.

Principles, methods and materials for teaching mathematics and computer science; development of mathematical concepts and skills, selection and use of materials, motivation, lesson and unit planning and evaluation.
P: adm to teacher educ and EDUC 361.

EDUC 314. Teaching Science in Middle and Secondary Schools. 3 Credits.

The nature of middle and high school science curricula, recent innovations in science teaching, classroom teaching techniques, and evaluation.
P: adm to teacher educ and EDUC 361.

EDUC 315. Teaching English as a Second Language. 3 Credits.

Basic methods of teaching English to non-native speakers and the underlying theories from linguistics, psychology, education and sociolinguistics; development and evaluation of lessons for the ESL classroom.
P: none; REC: one 300 level linguistics cse.

EDUC 316. Teaching Art in the Middle and Secondary Schools. 3 Credits.

Methodology, procedures and strategies for teaching art; motivation techniques, preparation of art lessons and lesson plans, evaluation of art learning experiences; creativity, visual awareness and perception techniques; curriculum development in art.
P: adm to teacher educ; REC: EDUC 250 and 361.

EDUC 317. Teaching Music in the Middle and Secondary Schools. 3 Credits.

Philosophical and curricular issues in secondary school music; review of secondary school materials and methodologies; developing rehearsal objectives for a performance-oriented music curriculum.
P: adm to teacher educ; REC: EDUC 361.

EDUC 319. Adolescent Literature in Middle and Secondary School Reading. 3 Credits.

Design and content of effective adolescent literature programs; analysis and evaluation of adolescent literature; current practices in literacy curricula; adolescent literature and personal development; literature and social issues.
P: jr st.

EDUC 324. Teaching Mathematics in the Elementary and Middle Schools. 3 Credits.

Educational research and practices related to methods, materials, evaluation techniques; mathematics curriculum development, implementation and evaluation, teaching mathematical concepts, facts, skills, problem-solving, use of calculators and computers; error patterns and remediation.
P: adm to teacher educ and EDUC 361; and conc enr with MATH 281 and 282.

EDUC 325. Teaching Science in the Elementary and Middle Schools. 3 Credits.

Teaching methods, materials, evaluation techniques, curriculum development, implementation and evaluation in elementary and middle school science concepts, processes and problem-solving; the nature of science, interactions of science, technology and society; applications of computers in science education.
P: adm to teacher educ and EDUC 361.

EDUC 333. Curriculum & Assessment in Early Childhood. 3 Credits.

Overview of all early childhood (3-4 yrs) developmental and instructional assessment methods, curriculum and instructional planning based on assessments, and preparation of a Documentation Portfolio for a 3 or 4 year old child.
P: Admission to Education and conc enr in EDUC 401; TB test and criminal background check.

EDUC 334. Teaching General Music in the Elementary and Middle Schools. 3 Credits.

Philosophical and theoretical foundations of music education. Children's musical needs; curriculum development; traditional and contemporary methods and materials.
P: adm to teacher educ and EDUC 361 and Music 252.

EDUC 336. Introduction to Experiences in Kindergarten. 1 Credit.

Students will spend 4-hours per week for 12 weeks in a kindergarten classroom implementing curriculum and assessment assignments/projects from EDUC 443.
P: Adm to teacher educ, EDUC 333, EDUC 401 and conc enr in EDUC 443, TB test and criminal background check. (F).

EDUC 340. Supporting Learning and Behavior in the Classroom. 3 Credits.

Course provides pre-service teachers with an understanding of how students learn in educational contexts. Learning theories reviewed, & learning strategies to enhance learning and prevent/manage behaviors are introduced and applied in direct interaction with a learner. 24 hr field component req.
P: adm to teacher educ or candidate and conc enrl Educ 290.

EDUC 342. Teaching Methods for Diverse Learners. 2 Credits.

A study of instructional methods and materials for teaching diverse learners.
P: adm to teacher educ and EDUC 361.

EDUC 343. Educational Assessment. 2 Credits.

This course will focus on the study of the principles, procedures, interpretation, and administration of formal and informal student assessment.
P: adm to teacher educ and EDUC 361.

EDUC 347. Classroom and Behavior Management Strategies. 2 Credits.

This course will address various theories and models for organizing and maintaining an effective classroom as well as strategies for working with individuals and groups.
P: adm to teacher educ and EDUC 361.

EDUC 351. Field Project in School Settings. 1 Credit.

Thirty clock hours of direct experience with school children/youth in educational settings, focusing on specific educational projects identified by education faculty, school faculty, and other educators. Fulfills part of the 100-hour pre-student-teaching clinical experience requirement.

EDUC 352. Social and Family Influences on Early Development and Learning. 3 Credits.

This course is designed for future and currently practicing teachers and other professional members of community organizations. The goal is to develop a better understanding of the many social influences in young children's development that lead to success or failure in the early school years (pre K-primary grades). Factors in the lives of young children which lead to positive or negative outcomes in childhood and beyond will be identified; their influence will be explained within such frameworks and approaches as Erikson's theory of psychosocial development and family systems theory. Strategies for helping young children and their families as well as knowledge of community resources will be stressed.
P: adm to teacher educ and EDUC 361.

EDUC 361. Introduction to the Art and Science of Teaching. 3 Credits.

This course provides pre-service teachers with a foundation for understanding the teaching profession and the nature of learners. Students are required to do extensive field experience. The course combines both theory and practice in the art and science of teaching.
P: Adm to teacher educ.

EDUC 401. Student Teaching in the Pre-Kindergarten Setting. 2 Credits.

Supervised student teaching or internships in the pre-kindergarten setting. Offered on a pass/no credit basis only. Additional special course fee required for students exercised options for extra administrative and travel costs.
P: Adm to Education; conc enr in EDUC 333; TB test & background check.

EDUC 402. Student Teaching in the Kindergarten Setting. 6 Credits.

Supervised student teaching or internships in the kindergarten setting. Offered on a pass/no credit basis only. Additional special course fee required for students exercised options for extra administrative and travel costs.
P: Adm to teacher educ.

EDUC 403. Student Teaching in the Primary School. 6-12 Credits.

Supervised student teaching or internships in the primary school. Offered on a pass/no credit basis only. Additional special course fee required for students exercised options for extra administrative and travel costs.
P: Adm to teacher educ.

EDUC 404. Student Teaching in the Middle School. 6-12 Credits.

Supervised student teaching or internships in the middle school. Offered on a pass/no credit basis only. Additional special course fee required for students exercised options for extra administrative and travel costs.
P: Adm to teacher educ.

EDUC 405. Student Teaching. 6-12 Credits.

Supervised student teaching or internships in the secondary school. Offered on a pass/no credit basis only. Additional special course fee required for students exercising options for extra administrative and travel costs.
P: Adm to teacher educ.

EDUC 406. Evaluation and Testing in Education. 2-3 Credits.

Techniques for constructing tests and measurement systems; statistical procedures applied to classroom data; monitoring and assessing individual and group learning situations; using and interpreting data from standardized tests.
P: jr st.

EDUC 414. Seminar in Student Teaching/Internship. 2 Credits.

This two-credit seminar is intended to provide student teachers and interns with the opportunity to complete Department of Public Instruction certification requirements as well as to provide student teachers and interns with the experience of interacting with and learning from each other. Class meetings will be four all day sessions, either on Saturdays or during the week preceding the start of the University semester and the student teaching/interning experience in the classroom.
P: conc enr in EDUC 401, 402, 403, 404 or 405.

EDUC 415. Counseling Role of the Classroom Teacher. 3 Credits.

Specific counseling and guidance skills necessary for guidance effectiveness of the classroom teacher and their implementation in the classroom.
P: adm to teacher educ.

EDUC 416. Principles of Coaching. 2 Credits.

The materials, drills, offenses, and defenses of specific sports gained through the literature of the field, personal interviews and observations, staff lectures and/or conferences.

EDUC 417. Philosophy of Athletics and Coaching. 2 Credits.

This course is designed to enable students to develop their philosophies of coaching. A thorough examination of the role of athletics in education and/or society is integral. An attempt is made to assure that the prospective coach has objectives that are consistent with our educational systems.

EDUC 418. Organization and Administration of Athletics. 2 Credits.

Various phases of organizing and administering and interscholastic athletic program with application to athletics in nonacademic environments as well (e.g. boys' clubs, tennis clubs).

EDUC 419. Field Experience in Coaching. 2 Credits.

Culminates study and preparation for practical coaching experience. Participation in practice, competitive and other coaching experiences under the supervision of an experienced cooperation coach. Student coach maintains daily log and consults with and is observed by CCP adviser.

EDUC 420. Workshop in Economics Education. 1-3 Credits.

Workshop is designed to provide information on selected current economic topics and concepts; enables educators to examine new instructional materials and curriculum guides; and develop learning activities appropriate to their instructional responsibilities. Different topics are selected each year. Required for secondary social studies licensure. Topic will be identified by subtitle with each offering. May be repeated for credit.

EDUC 421. Literacy and Language Development in Young Children. 3 Credits.

Acquisition of reading skills and development of language in preschool through primary grades; analysis of instructional and diagnostic strategies for listening and reading comprehension, vocabulary development, word identification strategies and approaches to beginning reading.
P: EDUC 361 or HUM DEV 331.

EDUC 422. Reading in the Content Areas. 3 Credits.

Practical guidelines for classroom teachers in subject areas: English, social studies, mathematics, science, etc. Suggestions for teaching reading and study skills related to content, specialized and technical vocabulary, and planning a unit with colleagues are included. Text structure and organization, the use of portfolios, problems with text structure, and using the arts to foster learning will be discussed. An understanding of the reading process and its relationship to cognitive development will also be featured. There is a technology component required for this course. Twenty hours of field experience in a Title I placement with elementary aged students is required.
P: adm to teacher educ.

EDUC 441. Infants & Toddlers: History, Philosophy & Current Programs. 3 Credits.

Students implement guided observations and learning experiences with infants and toddlers while learning about the historical and current approaches, models and issues.
P: Education Candidacy Status or admission to Education.

EDUC 443. Teaching Kindergarten: Curriculum and Assessment. 3 Credits.

Development of variety of teaching strategies, assessment strategies and resources for appropriate, standards-based learning in full day kindergarten programs.
P: Admission to Education, EDUC 333 and 401 and conc enr in 336, TB test and criminal background check req.

EDUC 445. Working and Communicating With Families of Young Children. 3 Credits.

Students will learn to work with families from diverse backgrounds in non-intrusive partnership, to communicate successfully using basic Hmong, Spanish and sign, and develop knowledge of resources and referral networks for families.
P: early chldhd tchng minor.

EDUC 452. Principles of Middle Level Education. 3 Credits.

Provides students with an overview of middle level students, teachers, schools, and curriculum. Suggests instructional strategies to meet student needs. Addresses issues related to middle level education.
P: adm to teacher educ.

EDUC 478. Honors in the Major. 3 Credits.

P: min 3.50 all cses req for major and min gpa 3.75 all UL cses req for major. (F,S)
P: min 3.50 all cses req for major and min gpa 3.75 all UL cses req for major.

EDUC 497. Internship. 1-12 Credits.

Supervised practical experience in an organization or activity appropriate to a student's career and educational interests. Internships are supervised by faculty members and require periodic student/faculty meetings.
P: jr st.

EDUC 498. Independent Study. 1-4 Credits.

Independent study is offered on an individual basis at the student's request and consists of a program of learning activities planned in consultation with a faculty member. A student wishing to study or conduct research in an area not represented in available scheduled courses should develop a preliminary proposal and seek the sponsorship of a faculty member. The student's advisor can direct him or her to instructors with appropriate interests. A written report or equivalent is required for evaluation, and a short title describing the program must be sent early inthe semester to the registrar for entry on the student's transcript.
P: fr or so st with cum gpa > or = 2.50; or jr or sr st with cum gpa > or = 2.00.

EDUC 499. Travel Course. 1-6 Credits.

Travel courses are conducted to various parts of the world and are led by one or more faculty members. May be repeated to different locations.
P: cons of instr & prior trip arr & financial deposit.